• 4 Tbl olive oil
  • 1 ½ C onion, chopped
  • 4 C fresh fennel, chopped
  • 2 Tbl garlic, finely chopped
  • 1 Tbl fresh rosemary, chopped, or 1 tsp dried 1 Tbl fresh thyme, chopped, or 1 tsp dried 1 tsp fennel seeds, lightly crushed
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 medium head escarole, washed thoroughly and cut into 1-inch pieces (about 6 cups)
  • 1/2 C dry white wine
  • 8 C partly dried or lightly toasted
  • 1/2 inch bread cubes, preferably from a chewy sourdough loaf
  • 1/2 C pine nuts, lightly toasted
  • 2 tsp lemon zest, grated
  • Freshly ground black pepper, to taste


  1. Heat the olive oil in a large skillet over medium-low heat.
  2. Add the onion, fennel, garlic, rosemary, thyme, fennel seeds, and salt. Cook, covered, until the onion is soft and translucent, 5-7 minutes. Add the escarole, cover, and cook until the escarole is wilted.
  3. Add the wine and let it simmer until some of the liquid has evaporated, 2-3 minutes in a large bowl, combine the vegetables with the bread cubes, pine nuts, and lemon zest.
  4. Season with pepper; toss to combine. The stuffing should just hold together.
  5. If baking some or all of the stuffing in a casserole, pour 1-2 cups of stock over the stuffing to replace the juices the stuffing would have absorbed from the bird. Bake it covered until heated through, 45 minutes to 1 hour. For a crunchy top, uncover it for the last 15 minutes of baking.